The disease burden of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is substantially more prevalent among residents of the sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. The availability and affordability of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) have significantly reduced the mortality among HIV-1 infected population, increase their life expectancy and quality of life. However, the poor financial conditions and lack of costly infrastructure in the developing countries hinder regular monitoring of HIV-1 RNA (viral load) and CD4+ T-lymphocyte cell count (TCD4+ cell count). Under these circumstances, there is an increasing need for alternate biomarkers for monitoring the progression of the disease and patient management. Albumin, hemoglobin (Hb), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), red blood cell (RBC) count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), plasma highly-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), hematocrit (Hct), total lymphocyte count (TLC) are some of the alternate biomarkers with proven utility in the assessment of disease progression.
Worldwide, a number of research groups are functioning towards effective treatment of colon cancer using chemotherapeutic agents. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are among the most potent agents discovered for the inhibition of cancer. In spite of the approval of celecoxib for adjuvant therapy in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis and precancerous disease of colon, associations of larger intensity of side effects limit its usage in cancer therapy. Combination therapy provides advantages of reduction in dose and possible reduction in toxicity and acquired drug resistance. As a consequence, targeted drug delivery and targeted molecular therapy of single or combination of anticancer agents are necessary for efficient treatment of colon cancer with reduced toxicity. In our study, combination of celecoxib and AEE788 shows growth inhibition and apoptosis in HCT 15 cells. Further, nanocarrier mediated celecoxib delivery showed high entrapment efficiency, sustained release patterns, desirable hemocompatibility and enhanced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in vitro and in vivo.