Master Thesis in Applied Chemical Science, it Includes studing 27 different olive tree cultivars leaves ethanolic extracts in terms of their total phenolic content, antioxidant activity, toxicity to brine shrimps, anticancer activity (cell cycle analysis, cell death assay, MTT test), safety on normal cells (MTT test), LC-MS anlysis and quntification for some of their chemical constituents like Oleuropein, Oleanolic acid, Erythrodiol with its isomer Uvaol, Quercetin, Rutin. investigation of the presence of Resveratrol and Salicin qualitatively and quantitatively using LC-MS anlysis , studing the correlation between each constituent concentration in the extracts and their toxicity to brine shrimps also their correlation with anticancer activity on 7 cancer cell lines (MCF- 7, MDA-MB-231, C32, MV3, SW480, SW620, HCT-116), LC- MS(-)ESI,(+)APCI finger print of the most potent anticancer extracts.
In pregnancy the increased blood supply includes a 45% to 50% increase in plasma volume and 20% to 30% increase in red blood cells. Since these percentages are not equal, the subsequent hemoglobin (HGB)/hematocrit (HCT) will reflect a normal physiologic anemia of pregnancy. The HCT will appear to fall as the volume increases more than the packed cell count. White blood cell (WBC) counts, especially neutrophils, increase naturally during pregnancy.There is also a rise in the number of platelets from 180 x 10^9 to over 300 x 10^9 during pregnancy. Although all women experience some expected changes in clotting, there are defective clotting conditions that greatly affect the outcomes of some pregnancies.
The original work of the present book consists of three research projects: In the first part: Synthesis, cytotoxicity evaluation, molecular docking and utility of novel chalcones as precursors for heterocycles incorporating pyrazole moiety.In the second part: Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of novel azolopyrimidines and pyrido-triazolo-pyrimidinones incorporating pyrazole moiety.In the third part: Synthesis of new pyrazolyl-pyridines as antitumor agents. The assigned structures for all the newly synthesized compounds were confirmed on the basis of elemental analyses and spectral data and the mechanisms of their formation were also discussed. In addition, some of the newly synthesized chalcones were tested for their cytotoxicity against human colon carcinoma cell line (HCT-116) and against human hepatocellular carcinoma (HEPG2) cell lines and the results revealed that some compounds have promising activities compared with the standard drug Doxorubicin. Molecular docking was also carried out for the high potent compounds.
This research work has attempted to investigate the underlying determinant factors of being HIV positive or HIV negative from the available HCT data using data mining techniques. It consists of experiments on searching classification model that predicts HIV status and association rule mining to discover the relationship of HIV status with the selected attributes. The classification experiments are carried out using J48 and ID3 algorithms. The association rule mining is using Apriori algorithm. One of the surprising results obtained from the experiment was that age group 50 and above are becoming also vulnerable to HIV/AIDS as the patterns have indicated. Medical experts also have stated that a growing number of older people are being infected with HIV/AIDS. One of the reasons they raised is that, they are finding HIV more often than ever before in older age since improved treatments are helping people with the disease live longer. The second reason is doctors do not always test older people for HIV/AIDS and so may miss some cases during routine check-ups and others.
This work has been carried out to investigate the following: The first project represents the reactions of ethylidenethiosemicarbazone with DMAD or substituted methylenemalononitriles gave thiazolidin-4-one or 1,3-thiazine derivatives, respectively. Also, treatment of ethylidenethiosemicarbazide with hydrazonoyl halides, -haloketones, and chloroacetic acid afforded the corresponding arylazothiazoles, thiazoles, and thiazolidenone derivative, respectively. The anti-cancer activity of the selected products against the colon carcinoma cell line (HCT-116) was determined and the results revealed promising activity.The second project involves the synthesis of a novel series of pyridine and bipyridine derivatives is described via one-pot multi-component reaction of 5-acetylimidazole, malononitrile (or ethyl cyanoacetate or diethyl malonate), substituted benzaldehyde (or terephthaldehyde) and ammonium acetate in good yields. The antimicrobial activities of the synthesized compounds were screened and the results showed that most of them exhibit considerable activities. Also, some of the newly synthesized compounds were screened for their anticancer activity against two cell lines.
The disease burden of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is substantially more prevalent among residents of the sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. The availability and affordability of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) have significantly reduced the mortality among HIV-1 infected population, increase their life expectancy and quality of life. However, the poor financial conditions and lack of costly infrastructure in the developing countries hinder regular monitoring of HIV-1 RNA (viral load) and CD4+ T-lymphocyte cell count (TCD4+ cell count). Under these circumstances, there is an increasing need for alternate biomarkers for monitoring the progression of the disease and patient management. Albumin, hemoglobin (Hb), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), red blood cell (RBC) count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), plasma highly-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), hematocrit (Hct), total lymphocyte count (TLC) are some of the alternate biomarkers with proven utility in the assessment of disease progression.
ABSTRACT The studies presented in this work include novel analytical methods based on spectrofluorimetric techniques for determination of some organic compounds used in pharmaceutical preparations. The work is divided to three chapters. The first chapter includes general introduction of spectrofluorimetric activity of lanthanide elements and the parameters affects on these phenomena. Also, the chapter involved the review of literature for previous methods of metoclopramide and hydrochlorothiazide drugs determination. The second chapter deals with the materials and apparatus used during this work including the types, grades, sources and preparations of these materials. Also, include the methods for measurements of different factors as absorbance, excitation and emission, effect of pH, effect of reagents and the validity tests of the metoclopramide and hydrochlorothiazide proposed methods as selectivity, recovery, precision and stability. The third chapter includes the results and discussion of the proposed methods for determination of metoclopramide hydrochloride (MCP) and hydrochlorothiazide (HCT).
The chemistry and an extensive spectrum of biological activities of spirooxindole have been examined since several decades and this heterocyclic core has received emerging consensus. This content aims to summarize recent advances made towards the discovery of Antituberculosis activity, AChE and BChE inhibitory activity, Anti-tumor activity, Antibacterial and Antifungal activity and Miscellaneous Activity holding spirooxindole as a nucleus with the substitution of several types of nucleophiles, and molecular patterns associated with particular potency have been identified targeting several Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and some fungal species, mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, and drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB), Alzheimer's disease, HCT 116 (colon), MCF 7 (Brest) and HEPG 2 (liver) human tumor cell lines. The report will be of enormous interest to gain useful information for the furtherance of drug discovery with extended spirooxindole designs.
HIV counselling and testing (HCT) is an entry point to know someone's HIV sero-status that will enable him/her to access prevention, care, support and treatment. Different models of HCT are conducted in Indonesia, according to its target population. However, to reach universal access, HCT need to be scaled up. The uptake of client-initiated counseling and testing approach that widely practiced and known as Voluntary Counselling and Testing, is below expectation. WHO has given recommendation for provider-initiated testing and counselling (PITC). There is a worldwide discussion on the weakness and strength of PITC. This discussion is divided between public health and human rights perspectives. For its implementation in Indonesian setting, some considerations need to be taken, particularly around the Three C's principles: consent, counselling and confidentiality. This thesis should be useful for government and non government organization, health service provider, policy maker or anyone else who may consider utilizing HIV counselling and testing.