The chemistry and an extensive spectrum of biological activities of spirooxindole have been examined since several decades and this heterocyclic core has received emerging consensus. This content aims to summarize recent advances made towards the discovery of Antituberculosis activity, AChE and BChE inhibitory activity, Anti-tumor activity, Antibacterial and Antifungal activity and Miscellaneous Activity holding spirooxindole as a nucleus with the substitution of several types of nucleophiles, and molecular patterns associated with particular potency have been identified targeting several Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and some fungal species, mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, and drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB), Alzheimer's disease, HCT 116 (colon), MCF 7 (Brest) and HEPG 2 (liver) human tumor cell lines. The report will be of enormous interest to gain useful information for the furtherance of drug discovery with extended spirooxindole designs.
Worldwide, a number of research groups are functioning towards effective treatment of colon cancer using chemotherapeutic agents. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are among the most potent agents discovered for the inhibition of cancer. In spite of the approval of celecoxib for adjuvant therapy in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis and precancerous disease of colon, associations of larger intensity of side effects limit its usage in cancer therapy. Combination therapy provides advantages of reduction in dose and possible reduction in toxicity and acquired drug resistance. As a consequence, targeted drug delivery and targeted molecular therapy of single or combination of anticancer agents are necessary for efficient treatment of colon cancer with reduced toxicity. In our study, combination of celecoxib and AEE788 shows growth inhibition and apoptosis in HCT 15 cells. Further, nanocarrier mediated celecoxib delivery showed high entrapment efficiency, sustained release patterns, desirable hemocompatibility and enhanced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in vitro and in vivo.