The book on the effect of health facility renovation on the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) counseling and testing (HCT) service utilization, will give a picture of the service utilization rate between the renovated and non-renovated health facilities in the Otjozondjupa region of the Republic of Namibia. The HCT is considered the corner stone in the fight against HIV/AIDS. There has been an increased investment of resources in the renovation of health facilities which is intended to have positive effect in the fight against HIV/AIDS. Therefore, the book will cover the before and after renovation period in terms of the effects of the health facility renovation on HCT service utilization in the Otjozondjupa region of the Republic of Namibia.
Phytic acid is extensively known for its anti-nutritional properties. The wide notion about this compound is to be changed totally. Hence, the study is focused on bringing out its potential as a drug molecule. The knowledge gained by understanding the binding efficacy of phytic acid and its analogues can help in the development of a new lead molecule. The antibacterial studies and cell line studies using HCT-15 confirmed the drugability. The potency of cancer drug targets can also be screened using docking studies. The entire work can bring out an effective lead molecule which maybe subjected to clinical trials. It is hypothesized that phytic acid and its derivatives having one or more of the following chemical functional groups such as the number of phosphates, phospho-diesters, charged phosphates, halogens, heavy atoms, steriocentred atoms, hydoxyl groups, hydrogen donors and acceptors, have an effect on the binding affinity towards the selected targets. Although, there are few reports to suggest the anticancer activity of PA, there is no work on its structure-activity relationship.
Recombinant technology has crucial impact in therapy development. In microbial environment, Pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus produces alpha hemolysin protein. This protein is used as anticancer protein. alpha hemolysin gene was isolated from pathogenic S. aureus that was isolated from blood samples of patients (chrildren). This recombinant hia gene was produced alpha hemolysin protein by using competent E. coli as a host. The recombinant - toxin protein was used as anticancer agent.In this study that high concentration of -toxin (500 mil/ ml) was effected on the cell viability of four cells line ( HepG-2, HCT-116, MCF-7, A-549). The cell viability of cell lines were represented 31.69% in HepG-2, 36.27% in HCT-116, 78.95% in MCF-7, 67.28% in A-549. From our results, Alpha hemolysin protein had high inhibitory activity against HepG-2 and HCT-116, and had weak inhibitory activity against MCF-7 and A-549. Inconclusion,The production of recombinant - toxin was very simple process, low cost, high efficiency, non-toxic, high yield and no side effect.
The book aimed to reveal degradation of Cucurbitacin E glucoside obtained from Citrullus colocynthis (L.) (Hanzal) into Cucurbitacin E and glucose by mean of microbial biotransformation using Curvularia lunata NRRL 2178 as a source of beta-glucosidase. All the instrumental data obtained by highly advanced techniques, confirmed the microbial conversion of cucurbitacin E glucoside into cucurbitacin E and glucose indicating effect of enzyme in the hydrolysis process by splitting of glucose from the anomeric carbon atom. The effect of the cucurbitacin E glucoside and cucurbitacin E on the proliferation of Hep-G2 cells was studied. The treatment of Hep-G2 cells with cucurbitacin E led to a high inhibition of the cell proliferation, which revealed a moderate anti-tumor activity of the cucurbitacin E against hepatic carcinoma, while cucurbitacin E glucoside had no cytotoxic effect on Hep-G2 cells. The study showed the effect of the compounds on the proliferation of HCT-116 cells, the two compounds were not cytotoxic as indicated by their IC50 values. On the other hand, the treatment of T-lymphocyte cells with cucurbitacin E resulted in increase in the cell proliferation.
ABSTRACT The studies presented in this work include novel analytical methods based on spectrofluorimetric techniques for determination of some organic compounds used in pharmaceutical preparations. The work is divided to three chapters. The first chapter includes general introduction of spectrofluorimetric activity of lanthanide elements and the parameters affects on these phenomena. Also, the chapter involved the review of literature for previous methods of metoclopramide and hydrochlorothiazide drugs determination. The second chapter deals with the materials and apparatus used during this work including the types, grades, sources and preparations of these materials. Also, include the methods for measurements of different factors as absorbance, excitation and emission, effect of pH, effect of reagents and the validity tests of the metoclopramide and hydrochlorothiazide proposed methods as selectivity, recovery, precision and stability. The third chapter includes the results and discussion of the proposed methods for determination of metoclopramide hydrochloride (MCP) and hydrochlorothiazide (HCT).
This book examines the effect of prior attendance of preschool on literacy competencies of school going children as they progress to later grades. Relying on the human capital (HCT) and social justice theories, the book provides vital information for researchers in reading and demonstrates whether investment in quality preschool experiences is a worthwhile venture. Important policy considerations are also elucidated. Moreover, evaluation experts planning for baseline, mid-term or end-line evaluations in literacy will find this an essential resource.
Healing properties of propolis are known in folk medicine from antiquity, however, recently, the interest in propolis as a potential natural product is increasing because of its broad spectrum of biological properties. It is an anti-flammatory agent, an immunostimulant, anti-oxidant, anti-microbial, and it is also an anti-tumour and a carcinostatic agent. This study was undertaken to characterize the chemical compounds, and antioxidant and anti-tumour potentials of propolis samples collected from five different geographical locations in Iraq using in vitro and in vivo studies. Thirty-eight different compounds were identified, and clerodane diterpenoids were identified for first time in temperate zone. All propolis samples exhibited strong free radical scavenging activity. The in vitro evaluations by growth inhibition, clonogenicity and flow cytometric assays showed that propolis has cytotoxic effects on two human cell lines. The in vivo potentials were also recorded on the growth of HCT-116 xenografts in a nude mouse model. This study provides the rationale to investigate the potential beneficial effect of propolis in the diet of patients receiving anti-cancer therapies.
Cancer is one of the most dreaded diseases responsible for millions of deaths every year. In the present study, 12 medicinal plants from Jammu region, viz., Alstonia scholaris (devil tree), Azadirachta indica (neem), Calotropis gigantea (milk weed), Emblica officinalis (amla), Mentha citrata (bergamot mint), Mentha piperita (piper mint), Mentha viridis (pudina), Murraya koengii (kari pata), Musa paradisiaca (banana), Olea europaea (olive), Punica garanatum (pomegranate) and Trachyspermum ammi (ajwain) were evaluated against five human cancer cell lines from four different origins, viz., A-549 (lung), HCT-116 (colon), MCF-7 (breast), PC-3 (prostate) and T-47D (breast). 7 medicinal plants showed in vitro cytotoxic effect against one or the other human cancer cell line with the remarkable results produced by Calotropis gigantea (73-78% growth inhibition at 10 mig/ml against lung, colon and prostate cancer cells).To conclude, the plant can provide a great service and promise to cancer patients.
The present work is concerned with the determination of pesticide residues in serum samples of Karachi people. In the present study enzyme levels and blood parameters were checked in the blood samples from collected Karachi population to assay the pesticide residues in their blood and also observed the morphological chemical changes. Effects of residues were observed on the enzyme level and blood parameters in the donors. Regarding enzyme levels, GOT, ALP and Cholinesterase had higher levels in almost all the donors. Organochlorine level was found to be high in those persons who were employees in government chemical department as compared to others private department. The variation was also noted among their ages. Both young and old age people were found to contain considerable quantities of organochlorine pollutants. Regarding blood parameters all donors had significant variation (i.e., increase or decrease level) possibly due to cumulative effect of residues. In 40% of the samples Hb, Hct, RBC, neutrophils and eosinophils had decreased level which may be due to toxic effects of pesticides.