The present work is concerned with the determination of pesticide residues in serum samples of Karachi people. In the present study enzyme levels and blood parameters were checked in the blood samples from collected Karachi population to assay the pesticide residues in their blood and also observed the morphological chemical changes. Effects of residues were observed on the enzyme level and blood parameters in the donors. Regarding enzyme levels, GOT, ALP and Cholinesterase had higher levels in almost all the donors. Organochlorine level was found to be high in those persons who were employees in government chemical department as compared to others private department. The variation was also noted among their ages. Both young and old age people were found to contain considerable quantities of organochlorine pollutants. Regarding blood parameters all donors had significant variation (i.e., increase or decrease level) possibly due to cumulative effect of residues. In 40% of the samples Hb, Hct, RBC, neutrophils and eosinophils had decreased level which may be due to toxic effects of pesticides.
This study aimed to examine the efficacy of spirulina in treating malnutrition among children in Gaza Strip. The sample of the study consisted of 60 malnourished children aged from 1 - 4 years. Content analysis of Spirulina showed that the proximate components were, crude protein (57.5%), crude fat (7.7%), carbohydrates (23.9%). Mean weight of children who received vitamins and minerals was 8.64 kg initially, increased to 9.39 kg after three months (P= 0.000), and mean weight of children who received spirulina was 7.9 kg initially, increased to 8.58 kg after three months (P= 0.000). There were statistically significant differences in median IQR Ferritin levels, WBC, Hb, HCT, MCV. The study concluded that spirulina was a valuable and effective supplement in treating malnutrition, and could be used in a wide range since it is cheap compared to other pharmaceutical preparations and formulas.
This book on HIV counseling and testing (HCT) is an important resource for HIV prevention and care. The knowledge and acceptance of serostatus can facilitate behavioural change, enable access to strategies to reduce the risk of mother to child transmission of HIV, enable early access to care for HIV-related conditions, and help in making informed decisions about future pregnancies. This study was designed to find out the factors influencing uptake of Human Immuno-deficiency (HIV) counselling and testing (HCT) among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in Sabon-Gari Comprehensive Health Centre, Zaria, Nigeria. A descriptive cross sectional survey was done. The fear of stigmatization is a factor militating against uptake of HCT. To improve the uptake of HCT services more innovative ethical and practical models of delivery should be developed and adopted. Improved awareness and education will reduce stigmatization of PLWHAS. This book is a must-read for all public health practitioners and maternal health care providers interested in working in Africa and in the tropics. It is also recommended for medical students and nurses who are seeking to broaden their knowledge on HCT.
Worldwide, a number of research groups are functioning towards effective treatment of colon cancer using chemotherapeutic agents. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are among the most potent agents discovered for the inhibition of cancer. In spite of the approval of celecoxib for adjuvant therapy in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis and precancerous disease of colon, associations of larger intensity of side effects limit its usage in cancer therapy. Combination therapy provides advantages of reduction in dose and possible reduction in toxicity and acquired drug resistance. As a consequence, targeted drug delivery and targeted molecular therapy of single or combination of anticancer agents are necessary for efficient treatment of colon cancer with reduced toxicity. In our study, combination of celecoxib and AEE788 shows growth inhibition and apoptosis in HCT 15 cells. Further, nanocarrier mediated celecoxib delivery showed high entrapment efficiency, sustained release patterns, desirable hemocompatibility and enhanced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in vitro and in vivo.
HIV&AIDS Counselling and Testing (HCT) services have for long been seen as an intervention towards HIV prevention. The major objective of this study is to establish the Knowledge and Attitudes of youth towards HCT services in Lira district, Uganda. The study tried to establish the knowledge of the youth on HIV&AIDS and HCT services, to identify the attitudes of the youth towards HCT services and to find out the strategies for improving HCT uptake among the youth. A cross section study design was used to collect quantitative and qualitative data from 112 youth. Quantitative data was collected by the use of semi-structure questionnaire on youth between 15-24 years while qualitative data was obtained using key informant interviews and focus group discussions. The findings show that most youth are knowledgeable about HIV&AIDS and HCT services because they can identify modes of HIV transmission and where to obtain HCT services. Youth in school were more likely to have heard about HIV and AIDS compared to the youth out of school. The study shows that youth have both positive and negative attitudes towards HCT services.